Section 1: Multiple Choice (2 points each)
Circle the letter of the item that best completes each sentence.
- Many Americans in the late 1800s believed the United States should expand its influence in the Pacific, including
- a. Matthew Perry.
- b. Alfred Mahan.
- c. Sanford Dole.
- d. all of the above
- Commodore Perry began his quest to open Japan to American trade by bringing a squadron of ships into
- a. Tokyo Bay.
- b. Manila Bay.
- c. Edo Bay.
- d. Pearl Harbor.
- Queen Liliuokalani was granted the right to rule Hawaii by
- a. the Constitution of 1887.
- b. Sanford Dole.
- c. the Provisional Government.
- d. the Annexation Club.
- The Spanish-American War was touched off by the explosion of the
- a. H.M.S. Beagle.
- b. U.S.S. Maine.
- c. Spanish Armada.
- d. U.S.S. Olympia.
- The term yellow journalism refers to
- a. the publication of the comic strip "The Yellow Kid."
- b. the introduction of a new, yellow-tinted paper for newsprint.
- c. printing sensational stories designed to sell newspapers.
- d. a strict code of journalistic ethics that prevents stories from being exaggerated.
- The battle of Manila Bay resulted in
- a. the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine.
- b. the opening of China to United States trade.
- c. negotiations between Commodore Perry and the Japanese government.
- d. the swift destruction of the Spanish fleet by American forces under Commodore Dewey.
- The Rough Riders were
- a. a traveling group of performers who put on a "wild West" show in the mid-1800s.
- b. a regiment of volunteer soldiers under Leonard Wood who fought in the Spanish-American War.
- c. a regiment of soldiers under Teddy Roosevelt who fought in the Philippines War.
- d. none of the above
- The war in the Philippines was a rebellion against American control led by
- a. the "Boxers."
- b. Ramon Blanco y Erenas.
- c. Kayama Yezaimon.
- d. Emilio Aguinaldo.
- Spheres of influence were
- a. areas of China in which certain European nations claimed exclusive trading rights.
- b. brilliant glass globes used in Hawaiian religious ceremonies.
- c. circular areas around American battleships within which their cannons could hit targets.
- d. areas of the Philippine jungle controlled by Emilio Aguinaldo's troops.
- The desire of the United States to join the Atlantic and Pacific oceans led to
- a. the annexation of Nicaragua.
- b. the creation of the Panama Canal.
- c. the election of Teddy Roosevelt as president.
- d. all of the above
Section 2: Short Answers (5 points each)
Write a one- or two-sentence answer to each of the following questions.
- What did President Fillmore request in his letter to the Japanese emperor, which was delivered by Commodore Perry?
- What role did Sanford Dole play in the downfall of the Hawaiian monarchy?
- Who did the American press claim was responsible for the explosion of the U.S.S. Maine? Who really did it?
- How did Teddy Roosevelt become a national hero during the Spanish-American War?
- Why was the Spanish-American War called "a splendid little war"?
- Why was the war in the Philippines less popular with the American people than the Spanish-American War had been?
- What were the Fists of Righteous Harmony, or "Boxers," rebelling against?
- What was the point of John Hay's Open Door policy?
- Why did Teddy Roosevelt think it was important to complete the Panama Canal?
- Who was Cornelius Vanderbilt, and what did he attempt to do in Nicaragua?
Section 3: Essay Questions (15 points each)
Select two of the following questions and write a short essay in response to each.
- What were some of the methods by which the United States expanded its economic and political influence around the world in the late 1800s and early 1900s? How did economic interests sometimes lead to military action? Cite specific examples—such as Japan, Hawaii, Cuba, the Philippines, China, Panama, and/or Nicaragua—in your answer.
- Why did the American consul in Cuba, Fitzhugh Lee, ask to have a battleship sent to Havana harbor? What was the Cubans' perception of the Maine's presence? Do you think the United States had a right to station a battleship in the harbor? How might the Spanish-American War have been avoided through better communication and sensitivity on all sides?
- What is the meaning of Teddy Roosevelt's motto "Speak softly, and carry a big stick" in regard to foreign policy? How did he implement this policy during his presidency? What do you think of the policy? Is it effective? Is it right?
- Study the political cartoon Civilization Begins at Home. What is the cartoonist saying about American foreign policy? What attitudes toward foreign nations does the cartoonist think are wrong? What aspects of American history and society are criticized in the cartoon? Do you agree with the ideas expressed by the cartoon?
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